The prevalence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in conventional and industrial dairy products (yogurt, cheese, kashk and dough) of Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Rev Environ Health. 2021 May 14. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2021-0028. Online ahead of print.


Aflatoxin is a toxic metabolite produced mainly by Aspergillus spp. which may occur in dairy products because of biotransformation. In this work, a systematic and meta-analysis approach has been considered on the topic of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) content in dairy Iranian products. Based on the literature review, AFM1 was the most common aflatoxin contamination in dairy product. Additionally, studies revealed that higher levels of AFM1 were produced during cold seasons includes winter and autumn. Although, immunochemical technique (ELISA) was the frequent and rapid test, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and chromatographic methods (HPLC) were commonly used as confirmative techniques to determine the level of aflatoxin. Meta-analyzing of the results showed that AFM1 can be found in the dairy products with overall prevalence percentage of 63.53 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 56.28-70.78) and 54.05 (95% CI: 43.09-65.02) based on the sample type and production process, respectively. The higher prevalence percentage of AFM1 of 73.96 (95% CI: 60.27-87.66) and 69.91 (95% CI: 62.00-78.83) was found in yoghurt and industrial production type of samples, respectively. In general, 17.8% of cheese, 14% of yogurt, 12.63% of kashk, and 2.1% of doogh contained AFM1 in concentrations exceeding the permitted level of standards. Totally, results showed that 88.89% of dairy products were contaminated by AFM1 exceeding from standard limits.

PMID:33984875 | DOI:10.1515/reveh-2021-0028

Source: Industry