Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2021 Jun;35(2):279-311. doi: 10.1016/j.idc.2021.03.003.
Pathogenic fungi have several mechanisms of resistance to antifungal drugs, driven by the genetic plasticity and versatility of their homeostatic responses to stressful environmental cues. We critically review the molecular mechanisms of resistance and cellular adaptations of pathogenic fungi in response to antifungals and discuss the factors contributing to such resistance. We offer suggestions for the translational and clinical research agenda of this rapidly evolving and medically important field. A better understanding of antifungal resistance should assist in developing better detection tools and inform optimal strategies for preventing and treating refractory mycoses in the future.