Curr Fungal Infect Rep. 2021 May 19:1-11. doi: 10.1007/s12281-021-00418-6. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Azole resistance in Aspergillus spp. is becoming a public health problem worldwide. However, data about this subject is lacking in Latin American countries. This review focuses in the epidemiology and molecular mechanisms of azole resistance in Aspergillus spp. emphasizing in Latin America. Data on Aspergillus fumigatus stands out because it is the most prevalent Aspergillus spp. pathogen.
RECENT FINDINGS: Azole resistance in Aspergillus spp. emergence was linked with intensive use of these antifungals both in the clinical setting and in the environment (as pesticides). Reports on azole-resistant A. fumigatus strains are being constantly published in different countries. Molecular mechanisms of resistance mainly involve substitution in the azole target (CYP51A) and/or overexpression of this gene. However, several other non-CYP51A-related mechanisms were described. Moreover, intrinsically resistant cryptic Aspergillus species are starting to be reported as human pathogens.
SUMMARY: After a comprehensive literature review, it is clear that azole resistance in Aspergillus spp. is emerging in Latin America and perhaps it is underestimated. All the main molecular mechanisms of azole resistance were described in patients and/or environmental samples. Moreover, one of the molecular mechanisms was described only in South America. Cryptic intrinsic azole-resistant species are also described.