Pulmonary sequestration with Aspergillus infection presenting as massive hemoptysis and hemothorax with highly elevated carcinoembryonic antigen in pleural effusion that mimics advanced lung malignancy
Eur J Med Res. 2021 May 25;26(1):48. doi: 10.1186/s40001-021-00519-5.
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary sequestration (PS) associated with massive hemoptysis, hemothorax, and elevated tumor markers or even lung malignancy has been reported in several studies. These clinical features combined with lung lesions on chest imaging are sometimes hard to differentiate from lung malignancies and often complicate the diagnostic procedure.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 45-year-old man with PS presented with massive hemoptysis, hemothorax, and extremely elevated carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in pleural effusion was initially misdiagnosed with advanced lung carcinoma, but was ultimately diagnosed with PS with Aspergillus infection.
CONCLUSIONS: PS is rarely concurrent with lung cancer; most of the time, it is misdiagnosed as a malignancy, especially when presenting with a fungal infection, which could remarkably elevate CEA in pleural effusion.