Assistant role of manifestations under tracheoscopy in the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in severe patients
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2021 Apr;33(4):478-482. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121430-20200723-00540.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the assistant role of manifestations under tracheoscopy in the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in severe patients.
METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted. The patients with suspected IPA admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical College from January 2015 to December 2019 were enrolled. The diagnosis, clinical diagnosis and suspected diagnosis were made according to the grading criteria of Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of invasive fungal infection in severe patients (2007). Those who met the criteria were enrolled in the IPA group, and those who did not meet the criteria or other pathogens were enrolled in the non-IPA group. The general data of the patients were collected, and the changes of tracheal and bronchial mucosa under tracheal microscope before and after treatment were recorded, as well as the results of galactomannan (GM) test and aetiology culture of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The baseline, bronchoscopy and pulmonary CT manifestations and their dynamic changes were compared in each group.
RESULTS: A total of 142 patients with suspected IPA were finally enrolled. Among them, 12 were pathologically proven IPA, 77 were probable IPA, 22 were possible IPA, and 31 were undefined IPA. Of the 142 patients, 60 had typical manifestations of mucosal injury under bronchoscopy, including 7 proven IPA patients (58.3%), 52 probable IPA patients (67.5%), and 1 possible IPA patient (4.5%), but none undefined IPA patient. The patients undergoing lung CT scan were 12 proven IPA patients (100%), 73 probable IPA patients (94.8%), and 21 possible IPA patients (95.5%), respectively. Most of the Chest CT showed patchy or strip density increasing and other non-specific manifestations. There were 3 proven IPA patients (25.0%), 7 probable IPA patients (9.0%), and 0 possible IPA patient (0%) who had typical IPA CT manifestations (halo sign and cavity or crescent sign). Among the patients of proven IPA and probable IPA (89 cases), there were a total of 35 cases with endoscopic airway mucosal injury and tracheoscopy reexamination ≥ 3 times. All the 35 patients received anti-aspergillus treatment, among which 16 survived and 19 died. Among the 16 patients who survived, the microscopic appearance of mucosal injury was gradually reduced and the clinical manifestations were gradually improved. Of the 19 patients who died, 16 had deteriorated endoscopic airway mucosal injury.
CONCLUSIONS: The specific manifestations of severe patients with bronchial mucosal injury are of great significance in the diagnosis of IPA. In the case of severe patients who cannot receive pathological examination or chest CT in time, dynamic observation of the changes of airway mucosal injury is a simple auxiliary method to discover the changes of patients’ condition in time, evaluate the effect of antifungal therapy and the prognosis of IPA.