Biocontrol Activity of <em>Bacillus megaterium</em> BM344-1 against Toxigenic Fungi

ACS Omega. 2021 Apr 13;6(16):10984-10990. doi: 10.1021/acsomega.1c00816. eCollection 2021 Apr 27.


Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of some fungal species and represent important contaminants of food and feed. This study aimed to explore the biological control activity of Bacillus megaterium BM344-1 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on the growth and mycotoxin production of single representatives of the toxigenic species Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus carbonarius, Penicillium verrucosum, and Fusarium verticillioides. In vitro co-incubation experiments indicated the P. verrucosum isolate as the most sensitive one, with a growth inhibition ratio of 66.7%, followed by A. flavus (29.4%) and F. verticillioides (18.2%). Exposure of A. flavus, P. verrucosum, and F. verticillioides to BM344-1 VOCs resulted in complete inhibition of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFG1, and AFG2), ochratoxin A, and fumonisin B1 (FB1) synthesis on artificial media, respectively. In vivo experiments on maize kernels showed 51% inhibition of fungal growth on ears simultaneously infected with A. flavus spores and exposed to BM344-1 volatiles. Likewise, AF synthesis by A. flavus was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited (25.34 ± 6.72 μg/kg) by bacterial volatiles as compared to that in control maize ears (91.81 ± 29.10 μg/kg). Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based analysis of headspace volatiles revealed hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (palmitic acid) and tetracosane as bioactive compounds in the BM344-1 volatilome. Bacterial volatiles have promising potential to control the growth and mycotoxin synthesis of toxigenic fungi and may present valuable aid in the efforts to warrant food and feed safety.

PMID:34056251 | PMC:PMC8153935 | DOI:10.1021/acsomega.1c00816

Source: Industry