Improving the Bioremediation and in situ Production of Biocompounds of a Biodiesel-Contaminated Soil
Environ Manage. 2021 Jun 2. doi: 10.1007/s00267-021-01486-7. Online ahead of print.
We aimed to produce simultaneously biosurfactants and lipases in solid state fermentation (SSF) using Aspergillus niger, followed by the use of the fermented media on the bioremediation of oily contaminated soil, in order to valuate agro industrial residuals and reduce the contamination. The biocompounds were produced using wheat bran and corncob (80:20), 5% of soybean oil and 0.5% of sugar cane molasses in SSF for 4 d, producing 4.58 ± 0.69 UE of emulsifying activity and 7.77 ± 1.52 U of lipolytic activity. This fermented media was used in the bioremediation of a 20% biodiesel contaminated soil, evaluating for 90 d microbial growth, contaminant degradation, and production of lipases and biosurfactants in soils. Six experimental strategies (natural attenuation; biostimulation + bioaugmentation + biocompounds; biostimulation + biosurfactant; biocompounds extract; biostimulation; adsorption of contaminant) were realized. The highest degradation of contaminant was verified in 90 d, of 74.40 ± 1.76%, and the production of biosurfactants and lipases in situ in the soil was found in 30 d (6.02 ± 0.24% of reduction in surface tension and 6.62 ± 0.17 UL of lipid activity in soil) for the same experiment (biostimulation + bioaugmentation + biocompounds). The addition of biostimulation + biosurfactant promotes higher biodegradation (66.00 ± 0.92%) of the contaminant than the biocompounds extract (59.58 ± 0.34%). The use of a solid fermented culture medium containing both biocompounds was feasible for the treatment of contaminants, demonstrating the potential for environmental application without the need for purification processes.