Scedosporium and Lomentospora Infections Are Infrequent, Difficult to Diagnose by Histology, and Highly Virulent

Am J Clin Pathol. 2021 Jun 23:aqab070. doi: 10.1093/ajcp/aqab070. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: To further characterize the histomorphology and clinicopathologic features of colonization and invasive disease by Scedosporium and Lomentospora.

METHODS: We conducted a 20-year retrospective study. Patients with at least 1 histopathology specimen and concurrent culture were included. Clinical features, histopathology, microbiology, and outcomes were analyzed.

RESULTS: Eighteen patients were identified, and all were immunocompromised. Eight patients had colonization, while 10 had invasive disease (pneumonia [n = 3], skin and soft-tissue infections [n = 3], disseminated disease [n = 4]). Scedosporium apiospermum was identified in 15 patients, Lomentospora prolificans in 2 patients, and Scedosporium ellipsoideum in 1 patient. Fungal elements were identified histologically in 11 patients. Granulomatous, suppurative, and necrotizing inflammation with irregular branching hyphae and characteristic microconidia were observed in 9 cases; conidiogenous cells were identified in 4 cases. Seven patients died of invasive disease despite therapy, and 3 recovered after treatment. No deaths were observed in patients with colonization.

CONCLUSIONS: Scedosporium and Lomentospora are rare, virulent opportunistic fungal pathogens. Fungal morphology may overlap with other hyaline molds, but identification of obovoid conidia should allow a diagnosis of non-Aspergillus hyalohyphomycosis and consideration of Scedosporium and Lomentospora. Histopathologic correlation with culture and polymerase chain reaction is critical for diagnosis and treatment.

PMID:34160012 | DOI:10.1093/ajcp/aqab070

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