Lipoxin A4 activates ALX/FPR2 to attenuate inflammation in Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis

Int Immunopharmacol. 2021 Jul;96:107785. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107785. Epub 2021 May 24.


PURPOSE: To explore the anti-inflammatory effect of lipoxin A4 (LXA4) in Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) keratitis and the underlying mechanisms.

METHODS: In A. fumigatus keratitis mouse models, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the level of LXA4. Clinical scores were utilized to evaluate fungal keratitis (FK) severity. Fungal load was assessed by plate count. Immunofluorescence staining, HE staining and myeloperoxidase (MPO) assays were carried out to evaluate the neutrophil infiltration and activity. In A. fumigatus infected mouse corneas and inactivated A. fumigatus-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and ELISA were applied to assess the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and anti-inflammatory factors.Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined by 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) staining in RAW264.7 cells.

RESULTS: LXA4 level was significantly increased in mice with A. fumigatus keratitis. In an A. fumigatus keratitis mouse model, LXA4 treatment alleviated FK severity, reduced fungal load and repressed neutrophil infiltration and activity. Additionally, LXA4 inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), TLR-2, TLR-4, Dectin-1 and iNOS, and promoted the expression of anti-inflammatory factors IL-10 and Arg-1. In RAW264.7 cells, LXA4 receptor/formyl peptide receptor 2 (ALX/FPR2) blockade reversed the anti-inflammatory effect of LXA4. LXA4 suppressed inactivated A. fumigatus induced elevated ROS production in RAW264.7 cells, which was abrogated by ALX/FPR2 antagonist Boc-2.

CONCLUSION: LXA4 ameliorated inflammatory response by suppressing neutrophil infiltration, downregulating the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and ROS production through ALX/FPR2 receptor in A. fumigatus keratitis.

PMID:34162149 | DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107785

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