Exploration of plant products and phytochemicals against aflatoxin toxicity in broiler chicken production: Present status
Toxicon. 2021 Jul 3:S0041-0101(21)00187-2. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2021.06.017. Online ahead of print.
Aflatoxins (AFs) are a class of mycotoxins produced by the toxigenic Aspergillus fungi and are common contaminants of foods and feeds. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the most potent aflatoxin, is well characterized to reduce productive performance and mortality in broilers. This exclusive review summarizes the efficacy of various plant products and phytochemicals to counteract AFB1 toxicity in broilers. The biochemical and molecular mode of action of AFB1 to induce liver damage, genotoxicity, immunosuppression and the protective effect of plant products against such mechanisms and their toxic effects are discussed. The link between antioxidant, immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective functions of plant products; oxidative stress and AFB1 macromolecular adducts mediated AFB1 toxicity are covered. Efficacy of Satureja khuzistanica, Zataria multiflora Boiss, Thymus vulgaris, Sauropsus androgynus, Hemidesmus indicus, Leucas aspera, Moringa oleifera, Eclipta alba, Curcuma longa, Silybum marianum, Urtica dioica, and citrus fruit are summarized. The anti-aflatoxic effect of water-soluble substances of wheat, grape seed proanthocyanidin extract and phytochemicals like thymol, carvarol, piperine, transcinnamaldehyde, resveratrol, curcumin, and silymarin are also discussed. Specific plant products and phytochemicals are shown to be effective against AF toxicity in broilers and could represent an important tool to reduce health and economic losses associated with AFB1 exposure.