Biosorption effect of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysosporium for Cd- and Pb-contaminated soil and their physiological effects on Vicia faba L
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021 Jul 13. doi: 10.1007/s11356-021-15382-4. Online ahead of print.
Phytoremediation is an important solution to soil pollution management. The goal of this study is to determine the biosorption ability of the two selected fungi (Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysosporium) under heavy metal stress on faba bean plants. The fungal strains produced phytohormones, siderophore, ACC deaminase, and secondary metabolites. The biosorption capacity of A. niger and P. chrysosporium was 0.09 and 0.06 mg g-1 and 0.5 and 0.4 mg g-1 in media containing Cd and Pb, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the fungal cell wall show primary functional groups like hydroxyl, amide, carboxyl, phosphoryl, sulfhydryl, and nitro. Therefore, A. niger and P. chrysosporium were inoculated to soils, and then the faba bean seeds were sown. After 21 days of sowing, the plants were irrigated with water to severe as control, with 100 mg L-1 of Cd and 200 mg L-1 of Pb. The results show that Cd and Pb caused a significant reduction in morphological characteristics, auxin, gibberellins, photosynthetic pigments, minerals content, and antioxidant enzymes as compared to control plants but caused a substantial boost in abscisic acid, ethylene, electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation, glutathione, proline, superoxide dismutase, secondary metabolites, and antioxidant capacity. In inoculated plants, metal-induced oxidative stress was modulated by inhibiting the transport of metal and decreased electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation. Finally, the inoculation of endophytic fungi contributed actively to the absorption of heavy metals and decreased their content in soil and plants. This could be utilized as an excellent technique in the fields of heavy metal-contaminated sustainable agriculture.