Risk assessment of glucoamylase and xylanase complex from Aspergillus awamori Xyl T-15

Vopr Pitan. 2021;90(3):28-39. doi: 10.33029/0042-8833-2021-90-3-28-39. Epub 2021 May 17.

ABSTRACT

The introduction of methods for food production using microbial synthesis, including those obtained with the help of genetically modified (GM) microorganisms, at the present stage, allows to increase production volumes and reduce the cost of food. At the same time, such products in accordance with TR CU 021/2011 “On food safety” are classified as a “novel food”ยป and can be placed on the market only after its risk estimation for health. The emergence of new data and research methods in the last years has made it necessary to improve the risk assessment system for this category of food. The aim of the research is to develope risk assessment approaches of food obtained by microbial synthesis on the example of the GM strain Aspergillus awamori Xyl T-15 and the enzyme preparation (EP) (a complex of glucoamylase and xylanase) produced by it. Material and methods. Outbred ICR mice (CD-1) and Wistar rats (males and females) were used in the experimental studies. Investigations of GM strain A. awamori Xyl T-15 virulence and its ability to disseminate internal organs have been carried out. Acute and subacute (during 80 days) toxicity of EP (a complex of glucoamylase and xylanase) have been studied. Results. The presented experimental data allow us to make a conclusion about the avirulence of the A. awamori Xyl T-15 strain, the lack of ability to disseminate internal organs (invasiveness). At the same time, the strain is characterized by the ability to produce mycotoxins (ochratoxin, fumonisin B2, T-2 and HT-2 toxins). The EP, a complex of glucoamylase and xylanase from A. awamori Xyl T-15, has a low oral acute toxicity for rats (LD50>5000 mg/kg). I ntragastric EP administration at doses of 10, 100 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight during 80 days had not revealed adversely affect on the rate of weight gain in animals, indicators of anxiety and cognitive function, and some studied biochemical indicators. At a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w. or more, there were changes in the relative mass of organs (lungs, kidneys, adrenal glands), small shifts in the parameters of erythropoiesis and leukocyte formula, at a dose of 1000 mg/kg b.w. – an increase in oxidative DNA destruction. T he most pronounced and dose-dependent was the effect of the EP on hepatocyte apoptosis. According to this indicator, the not observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for EP is not more than 100 mg/kg b.w. in terms of protein. The main target organ for the toxic effect of EP is the liver. Conclusion. The data obtained demonstrate the necessity to conduct an additional analysis of the risks of possible negative effects of EP, namely, to study its impact on the gut microbiocenosis and the immune status of experimental animals, to analyze the presence of determinants of pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance, DNA of selective marker genes of A. awamori Xyl T-15 strain by PCR analysis and DNA sequencing methods.

PMID:34264554 | DOI:10.33029/0042-8833-2021-90-3-28-39

Source: Industry