Emerging Fungal Threats in Cystic Fibrosis

Mycopathologia. 2021 Jul 28. doi: 10.1007/s11046-021-00574-w. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

In the past three decades, fungal respiratory colonization and fungal respiratory infections increasingly raised concern in cystic fibrosis (CF). Reasons for this are a better knowledge of the pathogenicity of fungi, whereby detection is sought in more and more CF centers, but also improvement of detection methods. However, differences in fungal detection rates within and between geographical regions exist and indicate the need for standardization of mycological examination of respiratory secretions. The still existing lack of standardization also complicates the assessment of fungal pathogenicity, relevance of fungal detection and risk factors for fungal infections. Nevertheless, numerous studies have now been conducted on differences in detection methods, epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenicity and therapy of fungal diseases in CF. Meanwhile, some research groups now have classified fungal disease entities in CF and developed diagnostic criteria as well as therapeutic guidelines.The following review presents an overview on fungal species relevant in CF. Cultural detection methods with their respective success rates as well as susceptibility testing will be presented, and the problem of increasing azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus will be highlighted. Next, current data and conflicting evidence on the epidemiology and risk factors for fungal diseases in patients with CF will be discussed. Finally, an overview of fungal disease entities in CF with their current definitions, diagnostic criteria and therapeutic options will be presented.

PMID:34319568 | DOI:10.1007/s11046-021-00574-w

Source: Industry