Constitutive expression and discovery of antimicrobial peptides in Zygogramma bicolorata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
Proteins. 2021 Sep 18. doi: 10.1002/prot.26239. Online ahead of print.
The expression, identification, and discovery of less toxic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are significant in managing infectious pathogens. AMPs triggered in response to the immune system have evolved to defend against pathogens and wounding. The protein composition of Zygogramma bicolorata hemolymph is of diagnostic importance as the open circulatory systems of the insects involve signaling through hemolymph. They have conserved many ancestral vertebrate genes that may help better understand the evolution of innate immunity. The present work describes the isolation, purification, identification, and bioinformatics analysis of AMPs from the immunized hemolymph of Z. bicolorata. Thirty-nine peptides were isolated from reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and sequenced via mass spectrometry analysis. The immunization process recorded a threefold higher protein concentration in immunized hemolymph when compared with non-immunized one. For the first time, the proteomic study on Z. bicolorata hemolymph unveils the three novel proteins in the family Chrysomelidae with no homology in the database, indicating its novelty and the expression of the rest of 36 well-known proteins, including heat-shock, immune, structural, signaling proteins, and others speak for its method validity. Combining the expression of novel AMPs, detoxifying enzymes, hemolytic and cytotoxic assays, and this work can elucidate new pathways to immune response mechanisms. Its molecular basis also holds the potential applicability in the future drug development process against pathogenic fungi such as Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.