A Case Report of Cystic Fibrosis Plus Tuberous Sclerosis: A Cautionary Tale Regarding Lung Transplantation
Transplant Proc. 2021 Sep 18:S0041-1345(21)00553-4. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2021.08.022. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are 2 rare genetic diseases that often affect the lungs. Pulmonary compromise in TSC or CF can be severe enough to require lung transplantation. In rare instances patients with CF undergo pneumonectomy to control recurrent lung infections and lung necrosis affecting one lung more than the other. Lung transplantation in these patients is exceedingly rare because preexistent pneumonectomy increases the risk of lung transplant-associated morbidity and mortality.
CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a young woman with co-occurrence of TSC and CF, who underwent left-sided pneumonectomy and, approximately 2 years later, right-sided single lung transplant. The posttransplant clinical course was complicated by phrenic nerve injury, ventilator dependency, Aspergillus endocarditis with embolic shower, and death. Pretransplant pneumonectomy, Aspergillus colonization, and posttransplant phrenic nerve injury contributed to the complex postoperative course, ventilatory dependence, and poor outcome.
CONCLUSION: This cautionary case should alert physicians on the challenges associated with single lung transplant in patients with preexistent pneumonectomy.