The formation kinetics and control of biofilms by three dominant fungi species isolated from groundwater
J Environ Sci (China). 2021 Nov;109:148-160. doi: 10.1016/j.jes.2021.04.002. Epub 2021 Apr 24.
Filamentous fungi can enter drinking water supply systems in various ways, and exist in suspended or sessile states which threatens the health of individuals by posing a high risk of invasive infections. In this study, the biofilms formation kinetics of the three genera of fungal spores, Aspergillus niger (A. niger), Penicillium polonicum (P. polonicum) and Trichoderma harzianum (T. harzianum) isolated from the groundwater were reported, as well as the effects of water quality parameters were evaluated. In addition, the efficiency of low- concentrations of chlorine-based disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide and chloramine) on controlling the formation of fungal biofilms was assessed. The results showed that the biofilms formation of the three genera of fungi could be divided into the following four phases: induction, exponential, stationary and sloughing off. The optimum conditions for fungal biofilms formation were found to be neutral or weakly acidic at 28 °C with rich nutrition. In fact, A. niger, P. polonicum, and T. harzianum were not observed to form mature biofilms in actual groundwater within 120 hr. Carbon was found to have the maximum effect on the fungal biofilms formation in actual groundwater, followed by nitrogen and phosphorus. The resistance of fungal species to disinfectants during the formation of biofilms decreased in the order: A. niger > T. harzianum > P. polonicum. Chlorine dioxide was observed to control the biofilms formation with maximum efficiency, followed by chlorine and chloramine. Consequently, the results of this study will provide a beneficial understanding for the formation and control of fungal biofilms.