Effect of Active Packaging Material Fortified with Clove Essential Oil on Fungal Growth and Post-Harvest Quality Changes in Table Grape during Cold Storage
Polymers (Basel). 2021 Oct 8;13(19):3445. doi: 10.3390/polym13193445.
Fungal growth in table grapes (Vitis vinifera cv. beauty seedless) is triggered by Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., and Rhizopus stolonifera during post-harvest storage. Due to the safety aspects, this research aimed to develop antifungal packaging embedded with essential oils (EOs) to alleviate the fungal decay of table grapes (TG). The various levels of EOs (0.5-5%, v/v) from clove, cinnamon, thyme, peppermint, lemon, bergamot, ginger, spearmint, and lemongrass were tested against Aspergillus sp. The results attained in radial growth, disk diffusion method, minimal inhibitory concentration, and minimal fungicidal concentration revealed that 1% clove essential oil (CEO) showed higher efficacy against Aspergillus sp. compared to the untreated control and other treatments. CEO at the 1% level exhibited a pleasant odor intensity in TG than the other EOs. The active polyvinyl alcohol (7% PVA) film with 1% CEO resulted in lower weight loss, disease severity, and TG berry drop than the control and other treated samples. Additionally, the acceptance score in the TG sample wrapped with a PVA film containing 1% CEO was augmented. Therefore, the PVA film with 1% CEO retarded the fungal growth and prolonged the shelf life of TG during storage of 21 days at 13 °C and 75% relative humidity (RH).