Invasive scedosporiosis in lung transplant recipients: A nine-year retrospective study in a tertiary care hospital

Rev Iberoam Micol. 2021 Oct 10:S1130-1406(21)00048-6. doi: 10.1016/j.riam.2021.06.002. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Scedosporium species and Lomentospora prolificans (Sc/Lp) are emerging molds that cause invasive disease associated with a high mortality rate. After Aspergillus, these molds are the second filamentous fungi recovered in lung transplant (LT) recipients.

AIMS: Our objective was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors and outcome of Sc/Lp infections in LT recipients at a tertiary care hospital with a national reference LT program.

METHODS: A nine-year retrospective study was conducted.

RESULTS: During this period, 395 LT were performed. Positive cultures for Sc/Lp were obtained from twenty-one LT recipients. Twelve patients (incidence 3.04%) developed invasive scedosporiosis (IS). In 66.7% of the patients with IS the invasive infection was defined as a breakthrough one. The main sites of infection were lungs and paranasal sinuses. Most of the patients received combination antifungal therapy. The IS crude mortality rate after 30 days was 16.7%, and 33.3% after a year.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights improved survival rates associated with combination antifungal therapy in LT recipients and underlines the risk of breakthrough infections in patients with allograft dysfunction on nebulized lipidic amphotericin B prophylaxis. In addition to pretransplant colonization, acute or chronic organ dysfunctions seem to be the main risk factors for IS.

PMID:34642117 | DOI:10.1016/j.riam.2021.06.002

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