Clinical features and early diagnostic clues of chronic granulomatous disease

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2021 Sep 2;59(9):777-781. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn112140-20210426-00348.


Objective: To explore the early clinical clues for diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Methods: One hundred and thirty-nine children with CGD seen in Beijing Children’s Hospital from January 2007 to October 2020 were included in this study. The clinical features including age of onset, first presentations, reason for being hospitalized, etiology, imaging features, clues for early diagnosis of all patients were evaluated retrospectively. According to the time of diagnosis, the patients were divided into two groups, cases diagnosed before 2015 and after 2015 and 2015. The time of diagnosis, the length of stay and the hospital charges were compared between the two groups. T test and χ2 test were used for statistical analyses. Results: One hundred and nineteen of the cases were males and 20 were females. The age of onset was 4 months (8 d to 14 years), and 103 cases (74.1%) had onset before 1 year of age. The age at diagnosis was 1.8 years (21 d to 14.7 years), and the time of diagnosis delay was 1 year (7 d to 13.7 years). One hundred and thirty-five cases (97.1%) had pulmonary infection as the main reason for hospitalization, of whom 76 cases (56.3%) had positive pulmonary etiology. One hundred and thirty-six patients (97.8%) were referred cases, of whom 5 were suspected of CGD before referral, and the misdiagnosis rate was as high as 96.3% (131/136). Eight early clues for diagnosis were found, the frequency from high to low, large bacillus Callmette-Guer scar in 99 cases (70.5%), left axillary lymphadenopathy or calcification in 73 cases (52.5%), skin or other lymph node infections in 58 cases (41.7%), skin scars in 50 cases (36.0%), multiple lung nodules in 42 cases (30.2%), perianal abscess in 35 cases (25.2%), pulmonary Aspergillus infection in 26 cases (18.7%) and pulmonary Burkholderia infection in 15 cases (10.8%). A total of 120 cases of CGD were diagnosed by respiratory burst test during hospitalization, including 55 cases diagnosed before 2015 and 65 cases diagnosed after 2015. After using these 8 early diagnosis clues, the cases diagnosed after 2015 had shorter time of diagnosis and the length of stay and lower hospitalization charge than cases diagnosed before 2014, and the difference was statistically significant ((25±7) vs. (10±5) d, (29±7) vs. (18±6) d, (3.7×104±1.2×104) vs. (3.2×104±1.2×104) Yuan, t=13.763, 9.262, 2.381, all P<0.05). Conclusions: Patients with CGD are younger at onset and the diagnosis is delayed. Pulmonary infections are the most common. Large BCG scar, left axillary lymphadenopathy or calcification, skin or other lymph node infections, skin scars, multiple lung nodules, perianal abscesses, pulmonary Aspergillus infection and Burkholderia infection can help early diagnosis of CGD.

PMID:34645219 | DOI:10.3760/cma.j.cn112140-20210426-00348

Source: Industry