Early diagnosis of aspergillosis in asthmatic and rheumatoid arthritis patients by Aspergillus galactomannan antigen assay: A case-control study in Karbala providence
J Asthma. 2021 Oct 20:1-10. doi: 10.1080/02770903.2021.1996601. Online ahead of print.
Objective: Aspergillosis is an opportunistic systemic infection caused by members of Aspergillus spp. in various parts of the human body. Chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and asthma may encourage development of aspergillosis under specific conditions. Thus, aspergillosis was investigated in patients with RA and asthma based on detection of galactomannan antigen.Methods: A case-control study was performed to involve 184 subjects, distributing in four groups: 55 patients with RA, 54 with asthma, 27 with both RA and asthma, and 48 healthy individuals. Serum was collected from involved subjects for detection of human Aspergillus galactomannan by ELISA assay. The optical density index (ODI) at cut-off <0.5 was used to determine the infection.Results: Aspergillosis was more frequently diagnosed in females with RA and both RA and asthma in opposite to the males. It also was found in most common in middle aged subjects. There was no significant difference in measurement of GM between all patient groups and healthy individuals.Conclusion: Aspergillosis can develop in either immunocompetent or immunocompromised individuals. Patients with either RA or RA and asthma are more susceptible to acquired aspergillosis than those with only one disease. Application of GM for diagnosis of aspergillosis may show a non significant results when it uses alone and needs other investigation tests.