Interactions of thymic stromal lymphopoietin with interleukin-4 in adaptive immunity during Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis

Int J Ophthalmol. 2021 Oct 18;14(10):1473-1483. doi: 10.18240/ijo.2021.10.02. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the potential interactions of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) with interleukin-4 (IL-4) in adaptive immunity during fungal keratitis (FK).

METHODS: An FK mouse model was induced with Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) hyphal infection. Mice were divided into several groups: untreated, phosphate buffer saline (PBS), infected with AF, and pretreated with a scrambled siRNA, a TSLP-specific siRNA (TSLP siRNA), murine recombinant TSLP (rTSLP), immunoglobulin G (IgG), murine recombinant IFN (rIFN-γ), murine recombinant IL-4 (rIL-4), rIL-13, murine recombinant IL-17A (rIL-17A), and murine recombinant IL-17F (rIL-17F) groups. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or Western blot were performed to determine mRNA and protein levels in the inflamed cornea. Cytokine locations were observed by immunofluoresence staining after AF hyphal infection.

RESULTS: Compared to those in the untreated group, TSLP and T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokine levels in the AF group were upregulated at 24h post infection (hpi), and those of T helper type 2 (Th2) and T helper type 17 (Th17) cytokines were increased at 5d post infection (dpi). Th2 cytokine levels were decreased in the TSLP siRNA-pretreated group and increased in the rTSLP-pretreated group compared with the AF group. The TSLP level was increased in the rIL-4-pretreated group, but there were no significant changes among the other groups. Immunofluorescence staining showed cytokine locations after AF hyphal infection.

CONCLUSION: TSLP induces a Th2 immune response and promots Th2 T cell differentiation in vivo. IL-4 promotes TSLP secretion. Therefore, TSLP with IL-4 regulates adaptive immunity in FK.

PMID:34667722 | PMC:PMC8482004 | DOI:10.18240/ijo.2021.10.02

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