Mechanistic investigations on antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of chemically characterised <em>Carum carvi</em> L. essential oil against fungal infestation and aflatoxin contamination of herbal raw materials
Nat Prod Res. 2021 Oct 21:1-6. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2021.1994566. Online ahead of print.
This study aimed to investigate the efficiency of chemically characterised Carum carvi essential oil (CcEO) against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) producing strain of Aspergillus flavus (AF-LHP-WS-4) causing deterioration of herbal raw materials (HRM). GC-MS analysis of the EO revealed the presence of carvone (69.85%) as a dominant component. CcEO caused complete suppression of A. flavus growth and AFB1 secretion at 0.7 and 0.6 µL/mL, respectively. The investigation on antifungal mode of action showed that CcEO inhibited fungal growth via abrogating ergosterol biosynthesis and triggered efflux of vital cellular ions. The inhibition of AFB1 biosynthesis was attributed to the inhibition of cellular methylglyoxal (MG) biosynthesis. In addition, CcEO showed remarkable antioxidant activity (IC50 = 10.564 µL/mL) against DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals. Based on overall results, it can be concluded that the CcEO may be recommended as potential antifungal agent for protection of HRM from fungal infestation and AFB1 contamination.