Fungal biomarker monitoring and CT scans for early detection of invasive fungal disease in neutropenic hematological patients
J Infect. 2021 Oct 25:S0163-4453(21)00534-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2021.10.018. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVES: By using data from the CEDMIC trial (n=413), we conducted a post-hoc analysis of the diagnostic value of biomarker monitoring and chest computed tomography (CT) scans for the early detection of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in neutropenic hematological patients.
METHODS: IFDs were defined in accordance with the EORTC/MSG definition with some modifications. Biomarkers such as Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) and (1→3)-β-D-glucan (βDG) were measured weekly.
RESULTS: The positive predictive value (PPV) of GM and βDG in cases of high-risk treatment were 0.70 and 0.69, while those in low-risk treatment were 0.08 and 0, respectively. All of the positive biomarkers that were measured before the development of fever in low-risk treatment were false positives. The proportion of patients who had abnormal chest CT findings was 19% in persistent fever at 4-6 days, 57% at 7 days or later and 36% in recurrent fever. Sixty-nine percent of the patients who had abnormal findings at 7 days or later did not have abnormalities at 4-6 days.
CONCLUSIONS: Afebrile screening of biomarkers in low-risk treatment is not useful. Chest CT should be reevaluated in persistent fever lasting for 7 days or longer even in patients who did not have abnormalities within 6 days.