PLoS One. 2021 Oct 29;16(10):e0255502. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0255502. eCollection 2021.
We evaluated phytochemical composition, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-oxidant and cytotoxic properties of aqueous (water) and organic extracts (methanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane) of Chenopodium glaucum. Highest phenolic content 45 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g d.w was found in aqueous extract followed by ethyl acetate (41mg GAE/g d.w) and methanol extract (34.46 mg GAE/g d.w). Antibacterial potential of aqueous and organic extracts of C. glaucum was examined against Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The aqueous, methanolic, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extract showed antibacterial activity against A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae, E. coli and S. epidermidis. However, against A. baumannii significantly higher inhibition zone (19 mm and 18.96 mm respectively) was shown by ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. Aqueous extract possessed highest growth inhibition (11 mm) against E. coli. Aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed 9 mm, 10 mm, and 10.33 mm zone of inhibition against the K. pneumoniae. For antifungal activity, the extracts were less effective against Aspergillus niger but showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus). The antioxidant activity was measured as DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), H2O2 and ABTS (2, 2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) scavenging activity of free radicals. All the organic extracts of C. glaucum possessed ABTS, DPPH and H2O2 scavenging properties. The highest cytotoxic activity measured as half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) against human lungs carcinoma cells was recorded for methanolic (IC50 = 16 μg/mL) and n-hexane (IC50 = 25 μg/mL) extracts, respectively. The Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed 4 major and 26 minor compounds in n-hexane extract and 4 major and 7 minor compounds in methanol extract of the C. glaucum. It is concluded that aqueous and organic extracts of C. glaucum would be potential therapeutic agents and could be exploited on a pilot scale to treat human pathogenic diseases.