Combinational inhibitory action of essential oils and gamma irradiation for controlling Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus growth and their aflatoxins biosynthesis in vitro and in situ conditions
Food Sci Technol Int. 2021 Nov 2:10820132211053086. doi: 10.1177/10820132211053086. Online ahead of print.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of certain essential oils (star anise, lemon leaves, marjoram, fennel, and lavender) on the fungal growth of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and their production of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The degree of suppression of the aflatoxigenic strains’ growth and their production of AFB1 is mainly affected by the kind and the concentration of the tested essential oils (EOs). Star anise essential oil had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (0.5 and 1.0 μL/mL) against A. flavus and A. parasiticus, respectively, so it was the best among the five different oils. The study of liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry revealed that star anise EO resulted in a 98% reduction in AFB1 without a breakdown of AFB1 products after treatment thus the complete removal of AFB1 was done without any toxic residues. The combination showed a synergistic effect, the combinational treatment between γ-irradiation at a low dose (2 kGy) and star anise EO at concentrate 0.5 μL/g destroyed A. flavus and A. parasiticus inoculated (individually) in sorghum and peanut, respectively throughout the storage period (8 weeks).