Structure Activity Evaluation and Computational analysis identifies potent, novel 3-Benzylidene Chroman-4-one analogues with Anti-fungal, Anti-oxidant and Anti-cancer activities
Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2021 Nov 2:1-21. doi: 10.1080/03639045.2021.2001489. Online ahead of print.
SIGNIFICANCE: 3-benzylidene chroman-4-ones share close homology with naturally occurring bioactive compounds.
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the antifungal, antioxidant and anticancer activities of novel 3-benzylidene chromanone analogues with respect to their structure-activity relationships.
METHODS: Compounds 45e-64e were synthesized inhouse. Aspergillus niger (MTCC 1344) Aspergillus flavus and Botrytis cinareae were the fungal strains tested. Computational docking analysis were carried out for Vanin-1, estrogen receptor and Akt proteins using Auto-dock vina. Free radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity was analyzed using spectrophotometric methods. MCF-7(breast cancer) cell line was used for anticancer assays. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell cycle and apoptosis.
RESULTS: Out of the twenty compounds screened, compounds 47e,50e,52e,57e and 61e that possessed either methoxy and ethoxy/methyl/isopropyl group exhibited very good activity against all fungi. Compounds possessing methoxy group alone showed moderate activity and compounds devoid of methoxy, and ethoxy groups did not show any activity. When computationally analyzed against target proteins for antioxidant properties, the compounds exhibited excellent binging efficacy to Vanin-1 and estrogen receptors. These predictions were translated in the in vitro free-radical scavenging and antioxidant assays. The compounds exhibited anti-proliferative efficacy in breast cancer cell line, increased the sub-G0/G1 cell cycle populations and total apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Additionally, the compounds also depicted excelling binging energy when computationally analyzed for Akt enzyme binding.
CONCLUSION: In summary, our study identified potential analogues of 3-benzylidene chroman-4-one molecules with excellent anti-fungal, anti-oxidant and anticancer activities which demands further research for drug developments.