Effect of chlorhexidine gluconate on mechanical and anti-microbial properties of thermoplastic cassava starch
Carbohydr Polym. 2022 Jan 1;275:118690. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118690. Epub 2021 Sep 22.
Antimicrobial thermoplastic starch (TPS) was developed using cassava starch, glycerol, and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) blend. CHG was added at concentrations of 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% (wt./wt.) as an antimicrobial additive. The tensile strength and hardness of the blended samples increased with the chlorhexidine gluconate content, especially for 1% CHG. wt./wt. (12.6 MPa and 94, respectively). The TPS/CHG20 blend exhibited a large phase of CHG and recrystallization of TPS. The water solubility decreased with the addition of CHG. Nuclear magnetic resonance data confirmed a reaction between the hydroxyl groups of TPS and the amino groups of CHG. The TPS/CHG20% exhibited an inhibition zone for three bacterial types (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus cereus) and three fungal types (Rhizopus oligosporus, Aspergillus oryzae, and Candida albicans). CHG acted simultaneously as a chain extender and an antimicrobial additive for TPS, improving its tensile strength, hardness, and anti-microbial properties.