Front Microbiol. 2021 Oct 21;12:739569. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.739569. eCollection 2021.
Aspergillus oryzae, commonly known as koji mold, has been widely used for the large-scale production of food products (sake, makgeolli, and soy sauce) and can accumulate a high level of lipids. In the present study, we showed the dynamic changes in A. oryzae mycelium growth and conidia formation under nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient stress. The fatty acid profile of A. oryzae was determined and the content of unsaturated fatty acid was found increased under nitrogen and phosphorus limitation. Oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and γ-linolenic acid (C18:3) production were increased on five nitrogen and phosphorus limitation media, especially on nitrogen deep limitation and phosphorus limitation group, showing a 1. 2-, 1. 6-, and 2.4-fold increment, respectively, compared with the control. Transcriptomic analysis showed the expression profile of genes related to nitrogen metabolism, citrate cycle, and linoleic acid synthesis, resulting in the accumulation of unsaturated fatty acid. qRT-PCR results further confirmed the reliability and availability of the differentially expressed genes obtained from the transcriptome analysis. Our study provides a global transcriptome characterization of the nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient stress adaptation process in A. oryzae. It also revealed that the molecular mechanisms of A. oryzae respond to nitrogen and phosphorus stress. Our finding facilitates the construction of industrial strains with a nutrient-limited tolerance.