Antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities of polyphenols extracted from different Saudi Arabian date cultivars against human pathogens
J Infect Public Health. 2021 Oct 14:S1876-0341(21)00327-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2021.10.006. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Microbial diseases have emerged as a serious threat to the healthcare system globally and also in Saudi Arabia; various diseases are associated with higher mortality and increased spreading rates. Dietary sources are often entertained to improve the immune system of the body to fight against these infections. The date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L) is one such functional food that is less explored for its actual potentials.
METHODS: The polyphenols isolated from the different cultivars of dates in Saudi Arabia (Ajwa, Safawi, Khalas, and Sukkary) was evaluated for their antibacterial, anti-fungal and anti-biofilm forming abilities. The anti-radical properties of the phenolic extract were conducted in terms of the scavenging of diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydrogen peroxide radicals and ABTS radicals. The anti-inflammatory potential was analyzed in terms of lipoxygenase activity inhibition.
RESULTS: The phenolic compounds of different dates were spectrophotometrically estimated and cultivars such as Ajwa and Sukkary had the highest polyphenol content. It was also noteworthy that they exerted potent antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as estimated by the least minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) or minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values. Besides, these polyphenols reduced the biofilm formation by these bacterial pathogens; it is thus possible that the polyphenols from dates can be a promising antimicrobial agent against various pathogenic strains. Corroborating with these, the polyphenol extracts from different Saudi Arabian dates were found to inhibit the growth of mycelium in strains of Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Apart from these, the polyphenol isolates also exhibited significant anti-radical properties against different reactive radical systems.
CONCLUSION: Overall, the efficacy of phenolic compounds extracted from the dried date fruits are not only restricted to the functional food features; instead, these molecules are capable of preventing the growth of microbial pathogens of humans. Hence, it may emerge as potent antibacterial, anti-fungal and anti-biofilm forming candidates.