Collateral consequences of agricultural fungicides on pathogenic yeasts: a One Health perspective to tackle azole resistance
Mycoses. 2021 Nov 25. doi: 10.1111/myc.13404. Online ahead of print.
Candida and Cryptococcus affect millions of people yearly, being responsible for a wide array of clinical presentations, including life-threatening diseases. Interestingly, most human-pathogenic yeasts are not restricted to the clinical setting, as they are also ubiquitous in the environment. Recent studies raise concern regarding the potential impact of agricultural use of azoles on resistance to medical antifungals in yeasts, as previously outlined with Aspergillus fumigatus. Thus, we undertook a narrative review of the literature and provide lines of evidence suggesting that an alternative, environmental route of azole resistance, may develop in pathogenic yeasts, in addition to patient route. However, it warrants sound evidence to support that pathogenic yeasts cross border between plants, animals and humans and that environmental reservoirs may contribute to azole resistance in Candida or other yeasts for humans. As these possibilities could concern public health, we propose a road map for future studies under the One Health perspective.