Discovery of GOT1 Inhibitors from a Marine-Derived Aspergillus terreus That Act against Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma
Mar Drugs. 2021 Oct 20;19(11):588. doi: 10.3390/md19110588.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating digestive system carcinoma with high incidence and death rates. PDAC cells are dependent on the Gln metabolism, which can preferentially utilize glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase 1 (GOT1) to maintain the redox homeostasis of cancer cells. Therefore, small molecule inhibitors targeting GOT1 can be used as a new strategy for developing cancer therapies. In this study, 18 butyrolactone derivatives (1–18) were isolated from a marine-derived Aspergillus terreus, and asperteretone B (5), aspulvinone H (AH, 6), and (+)-3′,3′-di-(dimethylallyl)-butyrolactone II (12) were discovered to possess significant GOT1-inhibitory activities in vitro, with IC50 values of (19.16 ± 0.15), (5.91 ± 0.04), and (26.38 ± 0.1) µM, respectively. Significantly, the molecular mechanism of the crystal structure of GOT1-AH was elucidated, wherein AH and the cofactor pyrido-aldehyde 5-phosphate competitively bound to the active sites of GOT1. More importantly, although the crystal structure of GOT1 has been discovered, the complex structure of GOT1 and its inhibitors has never been obtained, and the crystal structure of GOT1-AH is the first reported complex structure of GOT1/inhibitor. Further in vitro biological study indicated that AH could suppress glutamine metabolism, making PDAC cells sensitive to oxidative stress and inhibiting cell proliferation. More significantly, AH exhibited potent in vivo antitumor activity in an SW1990-cell-induced xenograft model. These findings suggest that AH could be considered as a promising lead molecule for the development of anti-PDAC agents.