Mycobiota and Mycotoxin Contamination of Traditional and Industrial Dry-Fermented Sausage <em>Kulen</em>
Toxins (Basel). 2021 Nov 12;13(11):798. doi: 10.3390/toxins13110798.
The aim of this study was to identify and compare surface mycobiota of traditional and industrial Croatian dry-fermented sausage Kulen, especially toxicogenic species, and to detect contamination with mycotoxins recognized as the most important for meat products. Identification of mould species was performed by sequence analysis of beta- tubulin and calmodulin gene, while the determination of mycotoxins aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) was carried out using the LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) method. The results showed a significantly higher number of mould isolates and greater species (including of those mycotoxigenic) diversity in traditional Kulen samples in comparison with the industrial ones. P. commune, as a potential CPA-producer, was the most represented in traditional Kulen (19.0%), followed by P. solitum (16.6%), which was the most represented in industrial Kulen samples (23.8%). The results also showed that 69% of the traditional sausage samples were contaminated with either CPA or OTA in concentrations of up to 13.35 µg/kg and 6.95 µg/kg, respectively, while in the industrial samples only OTA was detected (in a single sample in the concentration of 0.42 µg/kg). Mycotoxin AFB1 and its producers were not detected in any of the analysed samples (<LOD).