Curr Res Microb Sci. 2021 Aug 2;2:100056. doi: 10.1016/j.crmicr.2021.100056. eCollection 2021 Dec.
Reactive dyes are widely utilized in the textile industry due to their advantageous properties of vivid color, water-fastness, and simple application procedures with minimal energy usage. The toxicity of most azo dyes is a significant environmental concern, as effluents from dye processing and manufacturing sectors are known to be carcinogenic and mutagenic to numerous species. These issues are more grievous in Bangladesh, one of the largest exporters of apparel. This study aimed to isolate and identify potential fungal strains from textile effluent that are capable of degrading Reactive Red HE7B dye (a sulphonated reactive azo dye), a widely used dye in local thread dyeing industries. Dye degradation assay was performed in potato dextrose broth supplemented with 50 mg/l Reactive Red HE7B and the degradation rate was measured by a UV spectrophotometer. DNA extraction, quantification, PCR, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis were performed to identify the selected fungi. Among the isolates, the three best performing strains TEF -3, TEF -4, and TEF -5 showed 97.41%, 93.12%, and 82.89% dye degrading efficacy after 96 h of incubation, respectively. All three strains, TEF-3, TEF-4, and TEF-5 showed similarity with Aspergillus salinarus (accession no. NR_157473.1) and the similarity percentages were 97.02, 96.95, and 95.28 respectively. Interestingly, this study probably the very first indication of textile dye degradation by Aspergillus salinarus strains. Thus, these fungal strains possess the prospectiveness to be utilized in the textile wastewater treatment plants, since the isolates demonstrated the substantial capacity (>80%) to degrade Reactive Red dye after 96 h of incubation.