Effect of inoculation with Penicillium chrysogenum on chemical components and fungal communities in fermentation of Pu-erh tea

Food Res Int. 2021 Dec;150(Pt A):110748. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110748. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

ABSTRACT

Developing an effective method to improve the quality of Pu-erh tea is of great scientific and commercial interest. In this work, Penicillium chrysogenum P1 isolated from Pu-erh tea was inoculated in sterilized or unsterilized sun-dreid green tea leaves to develop pure-culture fermentation (PF) and enhanced fermentation (EF) of Pu-erh tea. Spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography determined that contents of free amino acids (FAA), total tea polyphenols and eight polyphenolic compounds in PF were significantly lower than these in non-inoculation control test (CK) (P < 0.05), whereas the contents of soluble sugars and theabrownins (TB) in PF were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in CK. A total of 416 volatile compounds were detected by headspace solid-phase micro-extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Comparison to CK, 124 compounds in PF were degraded or decreased significantly [Variable importance in projection [(VIP) > 1.0, P < 0.05, fold change (FC) < 0.5], whereas 110 compounds in PF were formed or increased significantly (VIP > 1.0, P < 0.05, FC > 2). Compared with normal fermentation (NF), the levels of gallic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and 64 volatile compounds in EF were significantly lower (VIP > 1.0, P < 0.05, FC < 0.5), whereas the levels of FAA and 39 volatile compounds were significantly higher (VIP > 1.0, P < 0.05, FC > 2). Amplicon sequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) revealed that P. chrysogenum P1 didn’t become the dominant fungus in EF; while the fungal communities in EF were different from those in NF, in that the relative abundances of Blastobotrys bambusae and P. chrysogenum in EF were higher, and the relative abundances of Aspergillus niger and Kluyveromyces marxianus in EF were lower. Overall, inoculation of P. chrysogenum in unsterilized sun-dreid green tea leaves changed the the fungal communities in fermentation of Pu-erh tea, and chemical compounds in fermented tea leaves, i.e., the levels of TB and the compounds responsible for the stale flavor, e.g., 2-amino-4-methoxybenzothiazole were increased, resulting in improvement of the sensory quality, including mellower taste and stronger stale flavor.

PMID:34865766 | DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110748

Source: Industry