Demonstration of <em>Allium sativum</em> Extract Inhibitory Effect on Biodeteriogenic Microbial Strain Growth, Biofilm Development, and Enzymatic and Organic Acid Production
Molecules. 2021 Nov 27;26(23):7195. doi: 10.3390/molecules26237195.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the efficiency of Allium sativum hydro-alcoholic extract (ASE) againstFigure growth, biofilm development, and soluble factor production of more than 200 biodeteriogenic microbial strains isolated from cultural heritage objects and buildings. The plant extract composition and antioxidant activities were determined spectrophotometrically and by HPLC-MS. The bioevaluation consisted of the qualitative (adapted diffusion method) and the quantitative evaluation of the inhibitory effect on planktonic growth (microdilution method), biofilm formation (violet crystal microtiter method), and production of microbial enzymes and organic acids. The garlic extract efficiency was correlated with microbial strain taxonomy and isolation source (the fungal strains isolated from paintings and paper and bacteria from wood, paper, and textiles were the most susceptible). The garlic extract contained thiosulfinate (307.66 ± 0.043 µM/g), flavonoids (64.33 ± 7.69 µg QE/g), and polyphenols (0.95 ± 0.011 mg GAE/g) as major compounds and demonstrated the highest efficiency against the Aspergillus versicolor (MIC 3.12-6.25 mg/mL), A. ochraceus (MIC: 3.12 mg/mL), Penicillium expansum (MIC 6.25-12.5 mg/mL), and A. niger (MIC 3.12-50 mg/mL) strains. The extract inhibited the adherence capacity (IIBG% 95.08-44.62%) and the production of cellulase, organic acids, and esterase. This eco-friendly solution shows promising potential for the conservation and safeguarding of tangible cultural heritage, successfully combating the biodeteriogenic microorganisms without undesirable side effects for the natural ecosystems.
PMID:34885775 | DOI:10.3390/molecules26237195