<em>Galleria mellonella</em>: The Versatile Host for Drug Discovery, In Vivo Toxicity Testing and Characterising Host-Pathogen Interactions
Antibiotics (Basel). 2021 Dec 17;10(12):1545. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics10121545.
Larvae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, are a convenient in vivo model for assessing the activity and toxicity of antimicrobial agents and for studying the immune response to pathogens and provide results similar to those from mammals. G. mellonella larvae are now widely used in academia and industry and their use can assist in the identification and evaluation of novel antimicrobial agents. Galleria larvae are inexpensive to purchase and house, easy to inoculate, generate results within 24-48 h and their use is not restricted by legal or ethical considerations. This review will highlight how Galleria larvae can be used to assess the efficacy of novel antimicrobial therapies (photodynamic therapy, phage therapy, metal-based drugs, triazole-amino acid hybrids) and for determining the in vivo toxicity of compounds (e.g., food preservatives, ionic liquids) and/or solvents (polysorbate 80). In addition, the disease development processes are associated with a variety of pathogens (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Aspergillus fumigatus, Madurella mycotomatis) in mammals are also present in Galleria larvae thus providing a simple in vivo model for characterising disease progression. The use of Galleria larvae offers many advantages and can lead to an acceleration in the development of novel antimicrobials and may be a prerequisite to mammalian testing.