Impact of solid-state fermentation on factors and mechanisms influencing the bioactive compounds of grains and processing by-products
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2021 Dec 27:1-26. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2021.2018989. Online ahead of print.
Cereal and legume grains and their processing by-products are rich sources of bioactives such as phenolics with considerable health potential, but these bioactives suffer from low bioaccessibility and bioavailability, resulting in limited use. Several studies have demonstrated that solid-state fermentation (SSF) with food-grade microorganisms is effective in releasing bound phenolic compounds in cereal and legume products. In this review, we discuss the effect of SSF on cereal and legume grains and their by-products by examining the role of specific microorganisms, their hydrolytic enzymes, fermentability of agri-food substrates, and the potential health benefits of SSF-enhanced bioactive compounds. SSF with fungi (Aspergillus spp. and Rhizopus spp.), bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) spp.) and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) significantly increased the bioactive phenolics and antioxidant capacities in cereal and legume grains and by-products, mainly through carbohydrate-cleaving enzymes. Increased bioactive phenolic and peptide contents of SSF-bioprocessed cereal and legume grains have been implicated for improved antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-diabetic, and angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effects in fermented agri-food products, but these remain as preliminary results. Future research should focus on the microbial mechanisms, suitability of substrates, and the physiological health benefits of SSF-treated grains and by-products.