Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2021;432:45-55. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-83391-6_5.
Since the first description of extracellular vesicles in a filamentous fungus, Alternaria infectoria, data has been gathered showing the importance of EVs in the interaction of filamentous fungi with the environment and with the animal and plant hosts. In Aspergillus spp. it was described paracrine effects over host cells, namely regulating the immune response; in phytopathogens, it was described the importance of EVs in infection structures. The study of the filamentous fungi EVs associated with cargos indicates important roles in the breakdown of substrates and the remodeling of the cell wall. Nevertheless, the information about filamentous fungi EVs is still scarce and the biogenesis and release deserve further study.