Sci Total Environ. 2022 Jan 6:152910. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152910. Online ahead of print.
Most previous studies on antifouling (AF) agents have focused on the influence of biofilm formation constituted by single or multiple cultured microbial species, and very few studies have analyzed the relationship between environmentally friendly AF compounds and marine fouling microbial communities (MFMCs). This is the first investigation of the impact of three environmentally friendly alkaloids (5-chlorosclerotiamide, circumdatin F and notoamide C) produced by the deep-sea-derived fungus Aspergillus westerdijkiae on MFMCs using high-throughput Illumina sequencing in a field test. The results of this study showed that the three alkaloids could significantly decrease the coverage of marine microflora (p < 0.05) and affect the composition and diversity of MFMCs on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plates. Furthermore, 5-chlorosclerotiamide and notoamide C could completely inhibit many macrofouler-inductive-bacteria, such as Pseudoalteromonas and Pseudomonas, and promote the anti-macrofouler-bacteria, such as Winogradskyella, from 0.21% to more than 10% of the MFMCs on PVC plates. These results suggested that 5-chlorosclerotiamide and notoamide C could influence the compositions of MFMCs and make it unfavorable for the settlement of macrofoulers, by reducing the abundance of macrofouler-inductive-bacteria and promoting the percentage of anti-macrofouler-bacteria on PVC plates. The present study provides a new way to evaluate the effect of environmentally friendly AF compounds and obtain a better understanding of the antifouling process.