Structure Elucidation and Toxicity Analysis of the Byproducts Formed after Biodegradation of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Using Extracts of <em>Mentha arvensis</em>
Toxins (Basel). 2022 Jan 1;14(1):24. doi: 10.3390/toxins14010024.
The aqueous extracts of leaves and shoots of Mentha arvensis were checked for their potential to biodegrade aflatoxin B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 µg/L and AFB2; 50 µg/L) through in vitro assays. Overall, the results showed that leaf extract degrades aflatoxins more efficiently than the shoot extract. First, the pH, temperature and incubation time were optimized for maximum degradation by observing this activity at different temperatures between 25 and 60 °C, pH between 2 and 10 and incubation time from 3 to 72 h. In general, an increase in all these parameters significantly increased the percentage of biodegradation. In vitro trials on mature maize stock were performed under optimized conditions, i.e., pH 8, temperature 30 °C and an incubation period of 72 h. The leaf extract resulted in 75% and 80% biodegradation of AFB1 and AFB2, respectively. Whereas the shoot extract degraded both toxins up to 40-48%. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed seven degraded products of AFB1 and three of AFB2. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the loss of the methoxy group from the side chain of the benzene ring, the removal of the double bond in the terminal furan ring and the modification of the lactone group, indicating less toxicity compared to the parent compounds. The degraded products showed low toxicity against brine shrimps, confirming that M. arvensis leaf extract has significant potential to biodegrade aflatoxins.
PMID:35051001 | DOI:10.3390/toxins14010024