J Sci Food Agric. 2022 Jan 8. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.11756. Online ahead of print.
Silo-bags are hermetic storage systems that inhibit fungal growth because of their atmosphere with low humidity, as well as low pH and O2 concentrations, and a high CO2 concentration. If a silo-bag with stored maize loses its hermetic nature, it favors the development of fungi and the production of mycotoxins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review on the diversity of fungal species and mycotoxins that were reported in maize stored under the environmental conditions provided by silo-bags. The genera Penicillium, Aspergillus and Fusarium were found more frequently, whereas Acremonium spp., Alternaria sp., Candida sp., Cladosporium sp., Debaryomyces spp., Epiconum sp., Eupenicillium spp., Eurotium sp., Eurotium amstelodami, Hyphopichia spp., Hyphopichia burtonii, Moniliella sp., Wallemia sp. and genera within the orden Mucorales were reported less recurrently. Despite finding a great fungal diversity, all of the studies focused their investigations on a small group of toxins: fumonisins (FBs), aflatoxins (AFs), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), patulin (PAT), toxin T2 (T2) and ochratoxin (OT). Of the FBs, fumonisin B1 and fumonisin B2 presented higher incidence percentages, followed by fumonisin B3 . Of the AFs, the only one reported was aflatoxin B1. The mycotoxins DON, ZEA and OT were found with lower incidences, whereas PAT and T2 were not detected. Good management practices of the silo-bags are necessary to achieve a hermetically sealed environment, without exchange of gases and water with the external environment during the storage period. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.