Curr Microbiol. 2022 Feb 12;79(4):99. doi: 10.1007/s00284-022-02761-4.
Mycotoxins may be present in nuts, coffee, cereals, and grapes, among other products. Increasing concerns about human health and environmental protection have driven the application of biological control techniques that can inhibit fungal contaminants. In this study, the growth inhibition of the ochratoxigenic fungus Aspergillus carbonarius Ac 162 was evaluated using 5 lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The LAB studied were Lactobacillus plantarum MZ801739 (J), Lactobacillus plantarum MZ809351 (31) and Lactobacillus plantarum MZ809350 (34), isolated in the Ivory Coast, and Lactobacillus plantarum MN982928 (3) and Leuconostoc citreum MZ801735 (23), isolated in Mexico. J, 31, 34, 3 and 23 are the internal strain codes from our laboratory. LAB were cultivated in De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth, and different polyols (glycerol, mannitol, sorbitol, and xylitol) were added to the culture broth to stimulate the production of antifungal compounds. The fungal inhibition studies were performed using the poisoned food technique. The highest inhibition of A. carbonarius growth was obtained by cultivating L. plantarum MZ809351 in the presence of xylitol and glycerol. Under these conditions, 1 L of the L. plantarum MZ809351 cultures were used to identify antifungal compounds. The compounds were concentrated by solid-phase extraction and then characterized by GC-MS. In addition to 9-octadecenoic acid, 3 diketopiperazines or cyclic dipeptides were identified, including cyclo (Leu-Leu), cyclo (Pro-Gly) and cyclo (Val-Phe), which were compounds related to microbial antifungal activities. Xylitol and glycerol induced the production of these antifungal compounds against A. carbonarius Ac 162. On the other hand, adding xylitol and glycerol to the MRS broth reduced the Ochratoxin A (OTA) content to 56.8 and 54.7%, respectively. This study shows the potential for using L. plantarum MZ809351 as a biocontrol agent to prevent the growth of A. carbonarius and reduce the production of OTA in foods.