The Biosynthesis and Transport of Ophiobolins in Aspergillus ustus 094102
Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Feb 8;23(3):1903. doi: 10.3390/ijms23031903.
Ophiobolins are a group of sesterterpenoids with a 5-8-5 tricyclic skeleton. They exhibit a significant cytotoxicity and present potential medicinal prospects. However, the biosynthesis and transport mechanisms of these valuable compounds have not been fully resolved. Herein, based on a transcriptome analysis, gene inactivation, heterologous expression and feeding experiments, we fully explain the biosynthesis pathway of ophiobolin K in Aspergillus ustus 094102, especially proved to be an unclustered oxidase OblCAu that catalyzes dehydrogenation at the site of C16 and C17 of both ophiobolin F and ophiobolin C. We also find that the intermediate ophiobolin C and final product ophiobolin K could be transported into a space between the cell wall and membrane by OblDAu to avoid the inhibiting of cell growth, which is proved by a fluorescence observation of the subcellular localization and cytotoxicity tests. This study completely resolves the biosynthesis mechanism of ophiobolins in strain A. ustus 094102. At the same time, it is revealed that the burden of strain growth caused by the excessive accumulation and toxicity of secondary metabolites is closely related to compartmentalized biosynthesis.
PMID:35163826 | DOI:10.3390/ijms23031903