Microbial Profile and Clinical Outcomes of Fungal Keratitis at a Single-Center Tertiary Care Hospital
Clin Ophthalmol. 2022 Feb 11;16:389-399. doi: 10.2147/OPTH.S346227. eCollection 2022.
PURPOSE: To evaluate baseline characteristics, microbiological spectrum, management, and outcomes of patients with culture-proven fungal keratitis.
METHODS: Retrospective review of all patients with culture-proven fungal keratitis seen over 6 years at a tertiary referral center.
RESULTS: The present study included 62 eyes from 62 patients. Infection with filamentous organisms was more common than with yeast (66.1% vs 27.4%). The most common filamentous organisms were Fusarium (17.7%) and Aspergillus (16.1%), while the most common yeast was Candida (24.2%). The main predisposing factor for filamentous keratitis was contact lens use. Yeast keratitis is most associated with an immunocompromised host and ocular surface disease. Corneal perforation (20.0%) and surgical interventions (46.8%) were common, with 27.4% of eyes requiring at least one penetrating keratoplasty. Filamentous keratitis is more likely than yeast keratitis to require urgent penetrating keratoplasty or enucleation and to receive more than one topical and systemic antifungal agent. Visual outcomes were poor with nearly half of the eyes remaining at 20/200 or worse upon resolution of infection. Worse visual outcomes were associated with poor vision at presentation and a history of ocular surface disease. Antifungal susceptibility testing was not routinely performed, but it demonstrated a relatively high minimum inhibitory concentration for at least one antifungal drug in 90% of cases when performed (16.1%) and guided the direction of treatment for 80% of the cases.
CONCLUSION: Fungal keratitis is visually devastating. Infections with filamentous fungi predominated over yeast and were generally treated more aggressively both medically and surgically. Filamentous and yeast keratitis had similar durations of infections and visual outcomes. Antifungal susceptibility testing influenced treatment in 80% of cases in which it was performed.