Lactic fermentation of grain sorghum: effect of variety and pretreatment on the production of lactic acid and biomass
J Food Sci Technol. 2022 Mar;59(3):1221-1229. doi: 10.1007/s13197-021-05132-2. Epub 2021 May 12.
Grain sorghum is a viable feedstock for lactic acid fermentation; however, tannins contained in some varieties affect the efficiency of hydrolysis and fermentation. This work objective was to assess the effect of pre-treatment of grain sorghum on the production of lactic acid and biomass after fermentation. Sorghum varieties with low, medium, and high tannins were pretreated, enzymatically hydrolyzed, and fermented with Lactobacillus casei. The pre-treatments consisted of cooking the grains in lime, cooking in plain water, and no treatment (control). Pretreated sorghum flours were hydrolyzed using thermostable α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis and amyloglucosidase from Aspergillus niger. Lime pre-treatment showed a significant improvement in protein content, digestibility, and lactic acid production after fermentation, in relation to the non-treated samples. Although differences were not significant for low and medium tannins, lime treatment increase lactic acid production for the cooked-in-lime high-tannin sorghum in relation to the control. For this sorghum/treatment combination, the lactic acid production was 138 g/L, with a volumetric productivity of 1.57 g/L·h and 85/100 g yield based on initial starch, which is equivalent to 69 g of lactic acid per 100 g of sorghum d.b.