Unraveling the Genome Sequence of Plant Growth Promoting Aspergillus niger (CSR3) Provides Insight into the Synthesis of Secondary Metabolites and Its Comparative Genomics
J Fungi (Basel). 2022 Jan 24;8(2):107. doi: 10.3390/jof8020107.
Aspergillus niger strain CSR3 is an endophytic fungus that regulates plant endogenous hormones, secondary metabolites, and promotes plant growth during abiotic stress conditions. In this study, we sequenced the genome of A. niger (CSR3) and compared it with previously available A. niger strains. The final genome assembly was 35.8 Mb in size, consisting of 23 scaffolds with N50 scaffold length of 2.4 Mb. A total of 12,442 protein coding genes, 270 tRNA, and 57 rRNA were predicted in the CSR3 genome. We used comparative genomic analysis to provide insights into the genome’s evolution and to elucidate the adaptive genomic signatures for bioactive secondary metabolite biosynthesis, hormones biosynthesis, and plant growth promoting activities. We also analyzed the transposable elements (TEs), simple sequence repeats (SSRs), CAZymes families, genes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis, and secondary metabolite clusters in the CSR3 genome. A total of 21 secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters were detected, with 18 essential enzymes involved in the mevalonate pathway (MVA). The repeat analysis revealed about 3431 SSR, 274 TEs, and 205 inverted repeats (IR). Further gene family analysis revealed that 124 gene families were gained, whereas 125 gene families were lost in CSR3 genome, compared to A. niger ASM151534V and A. niger ASM285V2 genomes. The results improve our understanding of the CSR3 genome and will assist in future investigations on the genetic basis of A. niger CSR3, including the identification of CSR3 phytostimulant properties.
PMID:35205861 | DOI:10.3390/jof8020107