SAGE Open Med Case Rep. 2022 Feb 28;10:2050313X221081386. doi: 10.1177/2050313X221081386. eCollection 2022.
Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening condition of the immunocompromised, with a low occurrence reported in the immunocompetent. Although usually made by invasive methods, its early diagnosis is the cornerstone of a better prognosis as it yields a timely management and thus a lower mortality risk. Mediastinal invasion by Aspergillus is, like any fungal mediastinitis, uncommon and usually results from a hematogeneous or a contiguous spread, a postoperative fungal infection, a complication of a descending necrotizing fasciitis, or from an esophageal perforation. We report a case of a diabetic patient with a previous history of hospitalization 2 months earlier for a COVID-19 infection, otherwise healthy, presenting with an unresolving dorsal pain. A malignancy was expected but further work-up showed in fine a posterior mediastinitis due to Aspergillus fumigatus. Thus, fungal etiologies are to be included as a differential while diagnosing a posterior mediastinitis even in a relatively immunocompetent patient and with no evident route of entry.