Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2022 Mar 13. doi: 10.1111/vru.13077. Online ahead of print.
Cryptococcus spp. can cause chronic rhinitis in cats and dogs. Computed tomography (CT) descriptions of imaging features of nasal cryptococcosis are limited. This retrospective single-center consecutive case series aimed to describe the CT features of lesions in cats and dogs with nasal cryptococcosis. Ten cats and 12 dogs with a diagnosis of nasal cryptococcosis confirmed with cytology, histopathology, and/or serology that had undergone a head CT from 2010 and 2020 were included. Images were evaluated by a veterinary radiologist for the presence of a nasal or nasopharyngeal mass, regional destruction, intracranial extension, and lymphadenopathy. The majority of cats (8/10 [80%]) had nasal lesions with most cases described as non-destructive rhinitis (7/8 [88%]). Three cats (3/10 [30%]) had a nasal mass. All cats had a nasopharyngeal mass, and in most cases (8/10 [80%]) the nasopharyngeal mass was centered caudally near the temporomandibular joints. None of the cats had cribriform plate lysis or meningeal enhancement. All dogs had nasal lesions. Eleven dogs (11/12 [92%]) had destructive rhinitis with lysis of nasal conchae. Most dogs (8/12; 67%) had a nasal mass, of which in seven dogs the caudal nasal mass extended into the rostral nasopharynx. Most dogs had cribriform plate lysis (9/12 [75%]), of which four dogs (44%) had mass extension into the cranium. Our findings support potential differences in CT features between dogs and cats with nasal cryptococcosis. Nasal cryptococcosis should be considered a differential diagnosis in dogs and cats with nasal and nasopharyngeal masses.