Sci Total Environ. 2022 Mar 13:154561. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.154561. Online ahead of print.
Pyrethroids are a class of insecticides structurally similar to that of natural pyrethrins. The application of pyrethrins in agriculture and pest control lead to many kinds of environmental pollution affecting human health and loss of soil microbial population that affect soil fertility and health. Natural pyrethrins have been used since ancient times as insect repellers, and their synthetic versions especially type 2 pyrethroids could be highly toxic to humans. PBO (Piperonyl butoxide) is known to enhance the toxicity of prallethrin in humans due to the resistance in its metabolic degradation. Pyrethroids are also known to cause plasma biochemical profile changes in humans and they also lead to the production of high levels of reactive oxygen species. Further they are also known to increase SGPT activity in humans. Due to the toxicity of pyrethrins in water bodies, soils, and food products, there is an urgent need to develop sustainable approaches to reduce their levels in the respective fields, which are eco-friendly, economically viable, and socially acceptable for on-site remediation. Keeping this in view, an attempt has been made to analyse the advances and prospects in using pyrethrins and possible technologies to control their harmful effects. The pyrethroid types, composition and biochemistry of necessary pyrethroid insecticides have been discussed in detail, in the research paper, along with their effect on insects and humans. It also covers the impact of pyrethroids on different plants and soil microbial flora. The second part deals with the microbial degradation of the pyrethroids through different modes, i.e., bioaugmentation and biostimulation. Many microbes such as Acremonium, Aspergillus, Microsphaeropsis, Westerdykella, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus have been used in the individual form for the degradation of pyrethroids, while some of them such as Bacillus are even used in the form of consortia.