The Spectrum of Invasive Fungal Sinusitis in COVID-19 Patients: Experience from a Tertiary Care Referral Center in Northern India
J Fungi (Basel). 2022 Feb 24;8(3):223. doi: 10.3390/jof8030223.
This study aimed to determine the patient demographics, risk factors, which include comorbidities, medications used to treat COVID-19, and presenting symptoms and signs, and the management outcome of COVID-19-associated invasive fungal sinusitis. A retrospective, propensity score-matched, comparative study was conducted at a tertiary care center, involving 124 patients with invasive fungal sinusitis admitted between April 2021 and September 2021, suffering from or having a history of COVID-19 infection. Among the 124 patients, 87 were male, and 37 were female. A total of 72.6% of patients received steroids, while 73.4% received antibiotics, and 55.6% received oxygen during COVID-19 management. The most common comorbidities were diabetes mellitus (83.9%) and hypertension (30.6%). A total of 92.2% had mucor, 16.9% had aspergillus, 12.9% had both, and one patient had hyalohyphomycosis on fungal smear and culture. The comparative study showed the significant role of serum ferritin, glycemic control, steroid use, and duration in COVID-19-associated invasive fungal disease (p < 0.001). Headache and facial pain (68, 54.8%) were the most common symptoms. The most involved sinonasal site was the maxillary sinus (90, 72.6%). The overall survival rate at the three-month follow-up was 79.9%. COVID-19-related aggressive inflammatory response, uncontrolled glycemic level, and rampant use of steroids are the most important predisposing factors in developing COVID-19-associated invasive fungal sinusitis.